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DUKW Amphibious 2 1/2 Ton 6x6 Truck

The concept the DUKW Amphibious 2 1/2 Ton 6x6 Truck -- a cargo truck-sized vehicle to unload ships across unprepared beaches without loss of momentum at the surf line -- was first recognized in mid-April 1942. Under the urgency of World War II, using the management of the National Defense Research Commmittee, the first DUKW was swimmiing by early June 1942. First productions models were delivered in November 1942, and DUKWs were first used in quantity in the July 1943 landing in Sicily. By December 1943, production of the DUKW had reached 1,500 per month.

A DUKW belonging to the 532nd Engineer Boat and Shore Regiment lies alongside a cargo ship in the harbor at Inch'on, Korea while a cargo net is used to transfer supplies to the DUKW for transport to the beach, 12 June 1951
A DUKW belonging to the 532nd Engineer Boat and Shore Regiment lies alongside a cargo ship in the harbor at Inch'on, Korea while a cargo net is used to transfer supplies to the DUKW for transport to the beach, 12 June 1951.

Today in WW II: 18 Apr 1941 As German troops approach Athens, the Greek Prime Minister Alexandros Koryzis commits suicide.  More 
18 Apr 1942 Doolittle Raid takes American bombers to Tokyo.
18 Apr 1943 Japanese Combined Fleet Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto killed when intercepted and shot down over Bougainville by 18 P-38 aircraft, the longest such mission of the war.
18 Apr 1945 Esteemed American war correspondent Ernie Pyle killed by Japanese machine gun fire, island of Ie Shima off Okinawa.
Visit the Olive-Drab.com World War II Timeline for day-by-day events 1939-1945! See also WW2 Books.

Truck, Amphibious, 2 1/2 ton, 6x6 DUKW

The DUKW was developed quickly during World War II to meet the need for amphibious cargo transfer from ship to shore. The nomenclature DUKW was assigned by the manufacturer, General Motors Corporation, from:

D= First year of manufacture, 1942
U = Utility vehicle (amphibious)
K = All wheel drive
W = Rear tandem axle

Someone quickly noticed that DUKW could be pronounced "duck" and the "Army Duck" was born.

The DUKW was based on the GMC "deuce and a half" 2 1/2-ton 6x6 CCKW, fitted with a watertight hull and propeller. Following the war, many of the versitile DUKWs were transferred for Coast Guard duty, river patrols or later Civil Defense work. They continue in service today with popular "Duck Tours".

The DUKW was considered an extraordinary success not only for its general technical quality, but also for these reasons:

  • Timeliness -- DUKW was both available and needed
  • Training -- Considerable effort went into operational training, an effort that was still growing in mid-1945
  • Continuing development -- Improvements suggested by field experience were rapidly made, both in the field and on current production models

DUKW production did not keep up with the demand. There were never enough available to meet much more than the basic over-the-beach landing requirements. Few of the secondary uses proposed -- pontoon bridges, mobile ferries, etc. -- were ever widely tried in the field.

Despite its overall success, the DUKW was criticized from the beginning as too small for reasonable cargo volume, difficult to unload, too slow in the water, too prone to bogging in muddy conditions, and helpless in exiting from the water except over rersonably good sand beaches, These deficiencies led to post-War developments, including the XM147 Super DUKW and the LARC-V (Lighter, Amphibious, Resupply, Cargo, 5 ton capacity).

DUKW Specifications

Length31 feet
Width8.25 feet
Height8.8 feet (w/top up)
Weight7.5 tons
Engine270 cu in GMC Straight 6
Water speed6.4 mph
Road speed50 mph
Number mfg by August 194521,000 (with 6,000 more on order)
Capacity: Troops25 or 12 on litters
Capacity: Cargo5 tons

The DUKW was the first vehicle with a central tire pressure control, allowing the operator to adjust the tires for hard surface roads (high pressure) or sand (low pressure) from the driver's seat. This is now a feature of the HMMWV and other modern vehicles.

Find additional photos and hi-res versions of the DUKW Truck, Amphibious, 2 1/2 ton, 6x6 at the Olive-Drab Military Mashup:

Convoy of DUKW amphibious trucks at  Hampton Roads Port of Embarkation, Newport News, VA, 3 February 1943.  DUKWs are on their way to trial water run near Pier X. Staff car in the left background.
DUKWs, LTVs, and Coast Guard-manned landing barges strike hard at the beaches of Tinian Island near Guam in the Marianas, 24 July 1944.
US Coast Guard DUKW at Moriches Lifeboat Station, Long Island, NY, circa 1947-48.
DUKW amphibious truck, 2 1/2 ton 6x6, showing possibilities of increasing carriage of stretchers to total of twelve by addition of second height of six stretchers placed athwartship across coaming of craft. Second height would require some simple form of fastening to prevent dislodgement. On left: MAJ W. T. Watkins, 0-484295, Stevedore Training Officer.  Hampton Roads Port of Embarkation, Newport News, VA, 2 January 1943.
Soldiers use cargo nets to transfer supplies from a transport ship to a waitingDUKW, Korea, circa 1950.
Bulldozers and a DUKW landing at Paestum Beach, 53 miles SE of Naples in the province of Salerno, Italy, 9 September 1943.

GMC DUKW Amphibious 2 1/2-ton 6x6 Photo Gallery

DUKW

DUKW landing in the Philipines
DUKW landing in the Philipines.

DUKW Landing

DUKW rear view, Hampton Roads Port of Embarkation, VA, 3 February 1943
DUKW rear view, Hampton Roads Port of Embarkation, VA, 3 February 1943.

DUKW

DUKW at the Texas Military Forces Museum, Camp Mabry, TX
DUKW at the Texas Military Forces Museum, Camp Mabry, TX, 3 February 2006. Photo: Courtesy of Bob Pettit.

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