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M163 Vulcan Air Defense System
The M-163 Vulcan Air Defense System (VADS) is an M-113A1 APC variant (designated the M-741) fitted with the General Dynamics M168 Vulcan (a variant of the M61 Vulcan), consisisting of 6 x 20mm barrels grouped on a geared motor, firing 3,000 rounds per minute. The M163, M163A1 (entered service in 1968) and M163A2 Vulcan systems were produced starting in the early 1960s to replace the M42 Duster. The 20mm Vulcan cannon is mounted in a power operated turret with a US Navy Mk 20 Mod 0 lead computing sight and range-only radar on the right side of the turret.
M163 Vulcan was intended to be used in conjunction with the M48 Chaparral Air Defense System. Vulcan was optimized for fast interception of short-range targets while Chaparral was meant for longer range engagements of 3-5 nm.
M-163 Vulcan Air Defense System (VADS)
Although designed primarily as an air defense system, like its predecessors the M-163 Vulcan Air Defense System (VADS) found additional roles in infantry support. During the 1982 Israeli IDF campaign in Beruit, for example, the 20mm antiaircraft gun with its high-elevation capability proved extremely useful against upper-level floors in tall buildings.