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M-48 Patton Tank

The M-48 Patton Medium Tank is a further refinement of the M-47 Patton Tank featuring a cast steel elliptical hull and turret design for improved ballistic protection. After a period of development that began in October 1950, the first M48-series Patton tank was christened by Mrs. George S. Patton Jr. on 1 July 1952 at the Chrysler Tank Plant, Newark. Delaware. Full production began there later the same year. The M-48 Patton Tank was intended for use in Europe against Soviet tank forces, and was used widely in Vietnam as well as by U.S. allies in conflicts such as between India and Pakistan. With total production of approximately 11,700 units between 1952 and 1959, the M-48 remains in use in many countries. Units designated M48A3 and M48A5 were upgraded from older M48s, not new production.

The M-48 through M-48A3 Patton Tanks had a 90 mm main gun, with one .30 cal. and one .50 cal. machine gun. The M-48A5 was upgraded to a 105mm main gun.

See United States Tanks After World War II for additional information about the M-48 Patton Tank.

11th Armored Cav. M-48 Patton Tank west of Saigon, Vietnam. Probably diesel engine M-48A3, most common variant in Vietnam
11th Armored Cav. M-48 Patton Tank west of Saigon, Vietnam. Probably diesel engine M-48A3, most common variant in Vietnam.

Today in WW II: 23 Apr 1941 Greece surrenders to Germany and Italy. British Commonwealth troops along with elements of the Greek Army withdraw to Crete.   

M-48 Patton Medium Tank: External Model Differences

The many models of the M-48 Patton Medium Tank may be difficult to distinguish in photos or if you encounter a tank on display. Here are some external features that can be used to differentiate:

  • M48 had external .50 cal. machine gun with no protection for the commander. Five return rollers.
  • M48A1 enclosed the .50 cal. with the commander's armored cupola. Five return rollers.
  • M48A2 (1955) and M48A2C had three return rollers, engine deck without grill work, louvered exhaust panels.
  • M48A3 (1959) diesel engine with external air cleaners mounted on the fenders. Since these were upgrades of M48 and M48A1 many had five rollers. Starting in 1963, 1,019 M48A1s were modified.
  • M48A5 (1975) had octagonal track shoes, 105mm main gun, M60 lights. Since these were upgrades of earlier variants, many had five rollers. Late M48A5s are very similar to the M60.

M48s weighed 52-54 tons loaded, depending on model. The M48, M48A1 and M48A2 variants had the ability to reach 32 mph on the road and 25 mph cross country, powered by a Continental AV1790-58 12 cyl. 810 hp gasoline engine. With the M48A3, introduced in 1968, and M48A5 a Continental AVDS-1790-2, 12 cyl. 750 hp supercharged diesel engine was used. [Note: There was an M48A4 model but only a few were produced as a pilot.]

With the development of the M-60 Patton Main Battle Tank, in full production by 1965, the M-48 was replaced in many units. The M48A3 saw extensive service in Vietnam, used by both Army and Marine Corps units. Upgraded M48A5 units remained in U.S. service until the mid-1990s.

Find additional photos and hi-res versions of the M-48 Patton Medium Tank at the Olive-Drab Military Mashup:

First Marine Tank, an M-48, enters Beirut, Lebanon, 16 July 1958.  Tank was attached to 2nd Battalion, 2nd Marines.
The M48A2 Patton medium tank was modified with an M7A1-6 flamethrower tank turret, resulting in the M67 fl amethrower tank, finalized in 1953. The flamethrower could be installed as the main armament of the M48 tank or as T-89 kits manufactured by Chrysler Corporation.  The Marine Corps developed the M67 to its highest level by using the M48A3 to update and upgrade M67 tanks to M67A2 standards, used extensively in Vietnam;
Soldiers and M48 Patton tanks from the U.S. Army Berlin Command face off against police from the former East Germany during one of several standoffs at Checkpoint Charlie in 1961. On several occasions that year, a U.S. quick reaction force of tanks and infantry Soldiers stood watch as armed military policemen escorted U.S. personnel across the border into East Berlin.
M48 Patton tank in the Central Highlands of Vietnam, 1969.
Members of the 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment respond to an alert exercise and move their M48 Medium Tanks of checkpoints along the German border, August 1962.  M151 jeeps to the left.
Members of Company A, 1st Battalion, 14th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division (Orange Forces), battle Blue Forces along Highway 43 supported by a South Korean army M-48 Patton main battle tank, during the joint South Korean/US Exercise TEAM SPIRIT '84, CHIPYONG-NI VALLEY, Korea, 27 March 1984. The soldier next to the tank is firing an M16A1 rifle.

M-48 Patton Medium Tank Photo Gallery

M-48 Patton Tank of the 2d Bn, 34th Armor, in position as static road security, Vietna
M-48 Patton Tank of the 2d Bn, 34th Armor, in position as static road security, Vietnam.

U.S. 25th Infantry Division M-48 Patton Tanks on a road in Vietnam, west of Pleiku, 1 April 1966
U.S. 25th Infantry Division M-48 Patton Tanks on a road in Vietnam, west of Pleiku, 1 April 1966.

M-48 Patton Tank at 1st Cavalry Division Museum, Ft. Hood, TX, 2 December 2005
M-48 Patton Tank at 1st Cavalry Division Museum, Ft. Hood, TX, 2 December 2005.Photo: Courtesy of Bob Pettit

M-48 Patton Tank at 1st Cavalry Division Museum, Ft. Hood, TX, 2 December 2005
M-48 Patton Tank at 1st Cavalry Division Museum, Ft. Hood, TX, 2 December 2005.Photo: Courtesy of Bob Pettit

M-48A3 Patton Tank at Texas Military Forces Museum, Camp Mabry, TX, 30 January 2006
M-48A3 Patton Tank at Texas Military Forces Museum, Camp Mabry, TX, 30 January 2006. Photo: Courtesy of Bob Pettit

M-48A1 Patton Tank in front of the Third U.S. Army headquarters building at Ft. McPherson, GA, 18 September 2005
M-48A1 Patton Tank in front of the Third U.S. Army headquarters building at Ft. McPherson, GA, 18 September 2005.

Detail of turret and commander's armored cupola on M48A1 Patton Tank
Detail of turret and commander's armored cupola on M48A1 Patton Tank.

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