Olive-Drab.com Military HQ
What's New? | Olive-Drab Directory | Adv Search  
  Home >> Military Organizations >> US >> US Army

Vehicles Weapons History Uniforms/Gear Rations War Dogs Photos/Video Info/Intel FAQ Store Facebook/Blogs

Military Theme
T-Shirts & Stuff
Visit Olive-Drab.com's sister site for
over 9,000 free military vehicle photos!

U.S. Army Organization

The U.S. Army is organized by principles that are deeply embedded in history and tradition. The echelons of combat units and support elements are designed with the flexibility to serve in peace and in war.

CPL Harold J. Dunn stands guard at Combat Command A, 9th Armored Div, 3rd U.S. Army, 12th Army Group, quartered in Excelsior Hotel, Coburg, Germany, 24 May 1945.
CPL Harold J. Dunn stands guard at Combat Command A, 9th Armored Div, 3rd U.S. Army, 12th Army Group, quartered in Excelsior Hotel, Coburg, Germany, 24 May 1945.

Today in WW II: 25 Nov 1941 Germans reach outskirts of Moscow but cannot sustain attack; Germans hold positions until Dec 5.  More 
25 Nov 1942 British SOE team and anti-Nazi Greeks blow up the Gorgopotamos railway viaduct, the first significant sabotage in occupied Europe [Operation Harling, Nov 25-26].
25 Nov 1943 Battle of Cape St. George between Buka and New Ireland, off Papua New Guinea, fought by US and Japanese naval forces.
25 Nov 1944 In Philippine waters, USS Intrepid [CV-11] hit by two Japanese kamikaze planes within five minute period, killing 69 and seriously wounding 85 of the crew.
25 Nov 1944 Most deadly German V-2 rocket attack in Britain happened at New Cross Road, destroying a Woolworths store and surrounding area, killing 160 people, seriously injuring 120 others.
25 Nov 1944 Japanese occupy Nanning, a transportation hub in south China, for the second time, in final stages of the Ichi-Go offensive.
25 Nov 1944 Last American airborne troops withdraw from unsuccessful Operation Market Garden positions.
Visit the Olive-Drab.com World War II Timeline for day-by-day events 1939-1945! See also WW2 Books.

U.S. Army Organization

US Army Echelons

The U.S. Army is organized in units of increasing size, from the individual Soldier to multi-corps commands composed of hundreds of thousands of Soldiers with all their support and logistics. The names and composition of Army units vary depending on the role of the unit. That is, there will be differences between the Combat Arms (infantry, armor, artillery, aviation, special forces), Combat Support (intelligence, communications, engineer, military police) and Combat Service Support (supply, maintenance, medical, transportation, chaplain, finance and administration). The unit names and other details have also evolved over time so that today's infantry Division will not be organized the same as a World War II infantry Division.

The nine echelons (levels) of Army units, from smallest to largest, are:

Unit NameAlternative NamesComponentsCommander's Rank
Fireteam 4 SoldiersStaff Sgt
SquadSection (Cavalry)4-10 SoldiersSgt or Staff Sgt
Platoon 16-40 Soldiers in 2 or more SquadsLieutenant
CompanyTroop (Cavalry), Battery (Artillery)100-200 Soldiers in 3-5 PlatoonsCaptain
BattalionSquadron (Cavalry)500-900 Soldiers in 4-6 Companies Lt. Colonel
BrigadeGroup (Logistics or Special Forces)3,000-5,000 Soldiers in 2-5 BattalionsColonel
Division 10,000 to 18,000 Soldiers in 3 or more BrigadesMajor General
Corps 2 or more Divisions plus other units organized under the Corps commanderLt. General
Field Army 2 or more Corps plus other units organized under the Field Army commanderGeneral (or Lt. General)
Army Group 2 or more Field Armies plus other units organized under the Army Group commanderGeneral

In the 1950s, the U.S. Army was reorganized to provide for a more flexible and dispersed formation in the light of atomic-armed forces. Pentomic was basically a divisional reorganization that introduced major changes in all infantry units. The single most important innovation was the elimination of the regiment from the infantry structure, replaced by a new organization called the "battle group." Smaller than a Regiment and larger than a Battalion, the new unit was commanded by a full colonel. Five battle groups were organic to the Pentomic infantry division. Prior to 1957, Battalions were organized into Regiments composed of 3 battalions and a HQ company. Regiments no longer exist as actual units, but are still used as a phantom way of grouping battalions for historical, morale, and other purposes. The battalions are commanded by their brigade headquarters. By June 1958, all fifteen active Regular Army divisions and their subordinate units had been reorganized under these tables, and by mid-1959 all but one of the thirty-seven divisions in the reserve components had adopted the new structure.

All land, sea, and air forces in a geographic area will be termed a Theater, for example the European Theater of Operations in WW II. Since WW II, Field Army and Army Group are not used. Within a Theater, the largest U.S. Army unit is the Army Service Component Command (ASCC) made up of two or more Corps, commanded by a Lt. General or General.

U.S. Army in 2005

Subject to ongoing modernization and transformation, the U.S. Army in the mid-2000s has ten active-duty divisions. Each Division HQ is located as indicated in the table, although a division may have a brigade based at another location.

DivisionLocation
1st Armored DivisionGermany
1st Cavalry DivisionFort Hood, TX
1st Infantry Division (Mechanized)Germany
2d Infantry DivisionKorea
3d Infantry Division (Mechanized)Fort Stewart, GA
4th Infantry Division (Mechanized)Fort Hood, TX
10th Mountain Division (Light Infantry)Fort Drum, NY
25th Infantry Division (Light)Schofield Barracks, HI
82d Airborne DivisionFort Bragg, NC
101st Airborne Division (Air Assault)Fort Campbell, KY

There are four active-duty Corps headquarters:

CorpsLocationOversees
V CorpsGermany1st Armored, 1st Infantry Divs
III CorpsFort Hood, TX1st Cavalry, 4th Infantry Divs
I CorpsFort Lewis, WA2d & 25th Infantry Divs
XVIII Airborne CorpsFort Bragg, NC82d & 101st Airborne, 10th Mountain, 3d Infantry Divs

There are five theater-level ASCCs:

ASCCLocationTheater Command
U.S. Army Europe (USAREUR)Heidelberg, GermanyU.S. European Command
U.S. Army Pacific (USARPAC)Ft Shafter, HIU.S. Pacific Command
U.S. Army South (USARSO)Ft Sam Houston, TXU.S. Southern Command
U.S. Army Central (ARCENT)Ft McPherson, GAThird U.S. Army, the Army component of U.S. Central Command
Eighth U.S. Army (EUSA)Yongsan, KoreaArmy component of U.S. Forces, Korea.

Major U.S. Army Commands

In addition to the five ASCCs, the Army also includes the MACOMs (major Army commands) for specialized support activities:

MACOMLocationDescription
Army Corps of EngineersWashington, DC 
Army Criminal Investigation CommandFt Belvoir, VA 
Army Forces Command (FORSCOM)Fort McPherson, GATrains, mobilizes, deploys, and sustains combat-ready forces for the unified combatant commands
Army Intelligence and Security CommandFort Belvoir, VA 
Army Materiel Command (AMC)Ft Belvoir, VAProvides materiel readiness, including technology, acquisition support, materiel development, logistics power projection, and sustainment
Army Medical Command (MEDCOM) Fort Sam Houston, TX 
Army Military District of WashingtonFt McNair, DCOperates Army facilities in the Washington, DC area, including Arlington National Cemetary
Army Space and Missile Defense CommandRedstone Arsenal, ALResponsible for ballistic missile defense research, development and deployment
Army Special Operations CommandFort Bragg, NCU.S. Special Operations Command Army component that trains, equips, deploys and sustains Army special-operations forces worldwide
Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command (SDDC)Scott AFB, ILProvides global surface deployment command and control and distribution operations
Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC)Ft Monroe, VATRADOC recruits, trains, and educates the Army’s soldiers, develops leaders, supports unit training, develops doctrine, establishes standards, and designs the future Army

Each MACOM includes major subordinate commands (MSCs) and other organizations to focus on and conduct specialized functions.

Transformation

Following the 9-11 terrorist attacks on the United States, the U.S. Army began its most significant reorganization since World War II, to ensure that the formations of all components are fully manned, equipped, and trained. Units of brigade, division, corps, and the ASCC structure were reviewed with changes expected to take until 2013 to complete.

To modernize the Army while increasing its effectiveness, the number of higher headquarters, brigades and portions of divisions will be reduced to form a greater number of modular Brigade Combat Team (BCT) forces that are expeditionary in nature and deployed continuously in different parts of the world. Each BCT will contain traditional maneuver battalions, along with some Combat Support and Combat Service Support traditionally provided by divisional or corps units.

The Army envisions these types of maneuver BCTs:

  • Armored BCTs: about 3,800 personnel and 1,000 vehicles
  • Infantry BCTs: about 3,000 soldiers
  • Stryker BCTs: about 4,000 personnel
  • Aviation BCTs
  • Sustainment BCTs

Expected strength will be 21 infantry BCTs, 22 armored BCTs, and 5 SBCTs. The Army goal is to have 48 active component BCTs and 32 National Guard BCTs.

Above the BCT level, the command and support organization will be called a "unit of employment x" (UEx). This single level of command will conduct many of the same command and control missions currently being performed by the two levels of command associated with a Division and a Corps. A UEx will be capable of commanding at least six BCTs, including all or part of a Marine Expeditionary Brigade. A different type of unit of employment, the UEy, will serve at a higher level than the UEx and will conduct many of the command and control missions formerly provided by the two levels associated with a corps and an ASCC.

The ongoing transformational changes are meant to ensure that the Army is structured to deploy to remote locations worldwide as part of a joint force. Although providing logistics support to Army forces is especially challenging because of the diversity of equipment and the dispersal of forces, new organizational designs and the introduction of lighter, land vehicles will enable the Army to deploy large forces much more rapidly than in the past and sustain them in noncontiguous environments.

U.S. Army Staff Organization

These definitions apply to the organization of U.S. Army staff, as well as that of the other U.S. military services, as indicated.

Staff (S): A group of officers in the headquarters of a Brigade and Battalion Staff (Army and Marine Corps units smaller than a Brigade or aircraft wings)

General Staff (G): A group of officers in the headquarters of Army or Marine Divisions, Marine Brigades and aircraft wings, or similar or larger units that assist their commanders in planning, coordinating, and supervising operations.

Joint Staff (J): The staff of a commander of a unified or specified command, subordinates unified commands, joint task force, or subordinate functional component (when a functional component command will employ forces from more than one military department), which includes members of several services comprising the force.

Joint Staff is also the staff under the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.  The Joint Staff assists the Chairman and, subject to the authority, direction, and control of the Chairman, the other members of the Joint Chief of Staff and Vice Chairman in carrying out their responsibilities.

Naval Staff (N) Naval staffs ordinarily are not organized on these lines, but when they are, they are designated (N-1, N-2, etc…)

 Staff (S)General Staff (G)Joint Staff (J)
1-Personnel S-1 G-1 J-1 (Manpower and Personnel Directorate)
2- Military Intelligence S-2 G-2 J-2
3- Operations S-3 G-3 J-3 (Operations Directorate)
4- Logistics S-4 G-4 J-4 (Logistics Directorate)
5- Civil Affairs/ Military Government   G-5 J-5 (Strategic Plans and Policy Directorate)
6- Command, Control and Communications Directorate     J-6
7- Operational Plans and Interoperability Directorate     J-7
8- Force Structure, Resources, and Assessment Directorate     J-8

Find at Amazon:  Military Issue equipment, clothing, boots, MREs, MOLLE gear and much more.

  Home >> Military Organizations >> US >> US Army What's New? | Olive-Drab Directory | Adv Search