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Origin of the Term Jeep

Although the name Jeep® became the commercial trademark of the Daimler-Chrysler Corporation, its origin in the early 1940s is somewhat of a mystery. There are a number of explanations, but no one really knows exactly how the name began. This page reviews all the popular theories of how the little 4x4 1/4-ton truck became the world-renowned and popular jeep, now the most universally recognized automotive shape in the world.

A soldier standing next to a Bantam BRC-60 (also called MkII) prototype jeep. Probable date would be in early 1941
A soldier standing next to a Bantam BRC-60 (also called MkII) prototype jeep. Probable date would be in early 1941.

Today in WW II: 23 Jul 1940 American Bantam and Willys-Overland submit the only two bids for the Quartermaster Corps light reconnaissance and command cars, the origin of the military jeep.  More 
23 Jul 1941 Original World War II contract for jeeps awarded to Willys with Ford added Nov 1941 to increase production.
23 Jul 1945 Submarine USS Barb [SS-220] destroys a Japanese locomotive and supply train at Patience Bay off the coast of Karafuto, Japan, the only known such attack by a submarine.
Visit the Olive-Drab.com World War II Timeline for day-by-day events 1939-1945! See also WW2 Books.

Origin of the Term Jeep

The origin of the term or name "jeep" is not firmly established. There are several plausible explanations, but none that is fully supported by evidence that can be said to settle the matter. The most likely explanations come from one or more of the following based on historical facts about the period of the development of the jeep, in 1940 and 1941, just before the beginning of World War II.

The full story of the development of the original Army Jeep of World War II is on the linked page.

Sixteen jeeps loaded crosswise on railroad flatcars for cross-country shipment, Hampton Roads Port of Embarkation, Newport News, VA, 10 July 1944
Sixteen jeeps loaded crosswise on railroad flatcars for cross-country shipment, Hampton Roads Port of Embarkation, Newport News, VA, 10 July 1944.

Additional photos are found in the Military Jeeps section of the Military Vehicle Charts.

Find additional photos and hi-res versions of military jeeps at the Olive-Drab Military Mashup:

Experimental rocket firing jeep, US Navy Naval Air Facility, Inyokern, CA, 26 January 1945.
Major General Manton Eddy Sprague, Commander of the 9th U.S. Infantry Division, stands in the center, rear at the wall of St. Leonard's Church, Honfleur, France, 1944.  A radio equipped jeep is in the foreground.
Truck, 1/4 Ton, 4x4, Willys MB (Standard WWII Army/Military Jeep), Aberdeen Proving Ground, 1 September 1943.
Prototype jeep on maneuvers for testing, crossing rough terrain pulling a 37mm anti-tank gun, Wadesboro, NC, November 1941. Battery D of the Fourty-four Division Anti-tank, Second Corps.
Gen. Colin L. Powell and Gen. Joseph T. Palastra, Jr. inspect Forces Command (FORSCOM) change of command ceremony where Gen. Powell became new Commander in Chief, Ft. McPherson, GA, 4 April 1989. The M-151A1 jeep is driven by PFC Grauel.
African-American troops of the 784th Tank Battalion and their M-4 Sherman tanks preparing to cross the Rhine River, March 1945.  A jeep leads the column and a 3/4 ton Dodge weapons carrier is to the right in the background.  This Bn was composed of African-Americans, called Buffalo Soldiers.

Jeep Origin Theory No. 1: GP

One popular idea is that the name jeep came from the military designation "GP" for "General Purpose." After all, the jeep was certainly general purpose, doing every task imaginable during the war, all over the world. And the WW II jeep prototype produced by Ford was indeed designated Ford Model GP.

While the Ford Model was the "GP" it did not mean "General Purpose" rather it came from Ford production codes: G for government, and P for the 80-inch-wheelbase of the vehicle. The Ford prototype was not selected for production, rather the Willys MB was. Ford then manufactured the Willys design under license, designated Ford GPW. The Willys MB and Ford GPW are the standard World War II jeep, with over 700,000 produced.

The early jeeps were called "Combat Car", "Reconnaissance Car", "Bantam", "Quad", "Peep", "Pygmy" and "Blitz Buggy", but not "General Purpose" a phrase which did not appear in any official nomenclature or designation of the jeep.

Jeep Origin Theory No. 2: Eugene the Jeep

Another explanation centers on the cartoon character Eugene the Jeep, who appeared in the Popeye comic strip during 1936. This mythical animal of African origin could only say one word: jeep. It has been speculated that this popular and affectionately thought of character who could go anywhere may have inspired the nickname for the nimble little military truck when it appeared.

Jeep Origin Theory No. 3: WW I Slang

Some reports indicate the use of "jeep" in military slang, dating to World War I, when the word meant a new recruit. The 1/4-ton jeep was a new idea in the U.S. military where previously larger trucks or motorcycles had been used, but never a jeep-sized four-wheel vehicle. Hence, the word may have been applied by soldiers to the unproven jeep vehicle when it was in the prototype testing phase.

Jeep Origin Theory No. 4: Other

Wikipedia reports that "Jeep" had been used as the name of a small tractor made by Modine. Other websites report that the term was "used in Oklahoma as early as 1934 to designate a truck equipped with special equipment for drilling oil wells." Other explanations have tried to link "jeep" to other products, slang, or events but no explanation has been definitely linked to the rapid and widespread adoption of the name in the early 1940s, attached to the military vehicle.

Jeep Origin Theory No. 5: Mixed

The most likely explanation is probably that the origin was mixed and converged on "jeep" from multiple directions. The mighty Ford Motor Company certainly pulled out all the stops in promoting its Ford GP to get the military contract, putting the term "GP" into use. The military people involved in the procurement and testing of the vehicle may have called it jeep from the WW I slang, merging with the Ford name. The civilian contractors, engineers, and testers may have related it to the Eugene the Jeep character in Popeye. Others may have come to the same name from other directions as one person heard it from another and put their own understanding and explanation on it.

Supporting these ideas, Irving "Red" Hausmann, a civilian Willys-Overland engineer, recalled that he picked up the name from the soldiers during testing at Camp Holabird, MD. The first media report using the term jeep was probably an article by Katherine Hillyer, writing for the Washington Daily News. In February 1941 she saw a demonstration of the Willys Quad prototype by Red Hausmann at the U.S. Capitol and published a report including a photo captioned, "Jeep Creeps Up Capitol Steps" (top photo on Willys Quad page). A few months later, the June 1941 issue of The Field Artillery Journal included an article on p413 titled, The Versatile Jeep, describing the Bantam and Ford prototypes that were field tested in early 1941.

Regardless of the origin, the result was the same. The "indestructible, go anywhere, do anything jeep", one of the innovations that won the war.

The name Jeep® is now the commercial trademark of the Daimler-Chrysler Corporation, the result of fifty years of mergers and acquisitions leading back to the Willys-Overland Co. of World War II who established the trademark for its civilian jeeps after the war.

Find More Information on the Internet

There are many fine websites that have additional information on this topic, too many to list here and too many to keep up with as they come and go. Use this Google web search form to get an up to date report of what's out there.

For good results, try entering this: jeep name origin. Then click the Search button.

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