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28 Nov 1943 Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin meet at Teheran Conference in Iran.
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Universal or Bren Gun Carrier

The British Commonwealth forces in World War II fielded the Universal Carrier, produced and used in England, Canada, and Australia as the Universal or Bren Gun Carrier, as well as in the U.S. as the T-16. The unit was used to tow artillery and in various other support and transportation roles as gun carriage and general purpose light armor.

Five models were produced during WW II:

  • Universal Mark I: produced by Ford of Canada.
  • Universal Mark II: minor upgrade of Mk I.
  • T-16: U.S. upgrade with an additional road wheel, produced by Ford
  • Windsor: Canadian upgrade with an additional road wheel
  • Loyd: British variant produced in small numbers.

A pair of disabled Australian Bren Gun Carriers at Duropa Plantation, northern Papuan coast of New Guinea, after fighting in December 1942
A pair of disabled Australian Bren Gun Carriers at Duropa Plantation, northern Papuan coast of New Guinea, after fighting in December 1942.

Mark II Universal Carrier, at the Musée des Blindés (Armor Museum), Saumur, France, 2003.  Photo: Courtesy of Jeff Hollerman
Mark II Universal Carrier, at the Musée des Blindés (Armor Museum), Saumur, France, 2003. Photo: Courtesy of Jeff Hollerman.

Ford built 1944 T-16 Photo: Courtesy of Andrew Criswell
Ford built 1944 T-16 Photo: Courtesy of Andrew Criswell.