Today in WW II: 28 Jul 1941 Oil agreement between Japan and Dutch East Indies suspended, part of a general order freezing all Japanese assets, pushing Japan toward war.  More 
28 Jul 1941 Soviet Union agreement with London-based Polish Government-in-exile invalidates the border negotiated with Germany and enlists Poles detained in the USSR for Allied armies.
28 Jul 1942 6000 Jews brought to pits by German SS and shot dead in Minsk, Belarus, a total of 30,000 slaughtered over four days of the Great Pogrom [28-31 Jul].
28 Jul 1944 Rapid Red Army advance through Poland overruns German defenses and captures Brest-Litovsk, Jaroslaw and Przemysl.
28 Jul 1945 B-25 Mitchell bomber, lost in fog, crashes into 79th floor of the Empire State Building in Manhattan, causing 14 deaths and extensive damage.
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Universal or Bren Gun Carrier

The British Commonwealth forces in World War II fielded the Universal Carrier, produced and used in England, Canada, and Australia as the Universal or Bren Gun Carrier, as well as in the U.S. as the T-16. The unit was used to tow artillery and in various other support and transportation roles as gun carriage and general purpose light armor.

Five models were produced during WW II:

  • Universal Mark I: produced by Ford of Canada.
  • Universal Mark II: minor upgrade of Mk I.
  • T-16: U.S. upgrade with an additional road wheel, produced by Ford
  • Windsor: Canadian upgrade with an additional road wheel
  • Loyd: British variant produced in small numbers.

A pair of disabled Australian Bren Gun Carriers at Duropa Plantation, northern Papuan coast of New Guinea, after fighting in December 1942
A pair of disabled Australian Bren Gun Carriers at Duropa Plantation, northern Papuan coast of New Guinea, after fighting in December 1942.

Mark II Universal Carrier, at the Musée des Blindés (Armor Museum), Saumur, France, 2003.  Photo: Courtesy of Jeff Hollerman
Mark II Universal Carrier, at the Musée des Blindés (Armor Museum), Saumur, France, 2003. Photo: Courtesy of Jeff Hollerman.

Ford built 1944 T-16 Photo: Courtesy of Andrew Criswell
Ford built 1944 T-16 Photo: Courtesy of Andrew Criswell.