Camouflage marking of vehicles is a very popular subject. Many people who have privately owned military vehicles choose to paint them with a camo pattern, even if it is not authentic for the time period of the vehicle. For example, the popular Woodland Camo pattern was not in use until 1975 but its not hard to find M-37 trucks from the 1950s and 1960s painted with that camouflage pattern.
Camouflage is the art of making military objects harder to see. In the past this was done by simple field expedients, such as the use of brush or earth berms to conceal a location such as a gun emplacement, encampment, or supply dump. After aircraft came into use, it was also necessary to change the appearance as seen by overhead observers, a need that now must consider how a site will took from a satellite. In the modern age there are also requirements to defeat the use of sophisticated sensors that look for infrared signatures or probe for other wavelengths that may reveal military equipment, personnel, or activity.
Camouflage netting augmented with local materials has long been used to conceal static positions, as in the photo, left, showing a howitzer position of the 2ID near Brest, 1944. In addition to camouflage of static positions with nets and brush, camouflage doctrine included efforts to conceal the tracks when vehicles were moved.
U.S. Military Vehicles Before 1975
Camouflaged M3 halftracks in a parade, 34th Division, Rabat, Morocco, 4 July 1943.
During World War II and after, until camouflage came into general use in 1975, U.S. vehicles were typically painted olive drab with blue drab or white markings. Several different shades of olive drab were used officially while un-officially vehicles were painted in local shops with whatever was available. The color specification for olive drab went through a number of changes over the years, explained in detail on the linked page.
Vehicles were selectively camouflaged with paint in World War II, according to FM 5-20B (April 1944) "Camouflage of Vehicles" which called for patterns composed of a light color and a dark color:
Black or olive drab have proved satisfactory dark colors in several theaters of operations. The light color is selected to match a light color typical of and predominant in the terrain in which the vehicle operates. White or light gray paint is applied to the undersurfaces of vehicles to cause them to reflect light, thus lightening the dark shadows of the undercarriage. This is called countershading.
Figures 38 to 40 of FM 5-20B were color plates showing vehicles painted olive drab with black (for temperate zones and jungle), olive drab with earth red (for desert terrain), and olive drab with white (for snow and trees).
4 Color vs. 3 Color Camouflage
127th Security Forces Squadron personnel with an M1043 HMMWV in 3-color camo at Selfridge Air National Guard Base, MI, 6 February 2002. (7.62mm M60 machine gun mounted on the HMMWV)
During the 1980s the NATO countries, including the United States, agreed on a new camouflage scheme for vehicles, one with three colors (HMMWV photo, above). The camouflage manuals were updated in 1988 and 1990 to reflect the new standard:
TB 43-0209 Color, Marking, and Camouflage Painting of Military Vehicles, Construction Equipment, and Materials Handling Equipment. 30 Oct 1990. Change 1, May 1991
TM 43-0139 Painting Instructions for Army Materiel (Oct 1988 with Changes 1-3)
The three color patterns are sometimes called NATO camo or CARC camo, the latter for the paint used, although CARC was also used for four color painting. NATO itself uses the term SCAPP: Standard Camouflage Pattern Painting, described in a North Atlantic Council document, Brussels, Feb 1993.
Camouflage Painting Resources
The November/December 1998 issue of Military Vehicles Magazine
carries in-depth information on painting in general and camo pattern painting in particular along with tips on canvas care and maintenance. This issue will be a good reference to have on hand. David Doyle's Standard Catalog of U.S. Military Vehicles
has extensive information on camouflage patterns and painting in Appendix 2.
The US Marine Corps has a set of two manuals on the subject of painting and marking of vehicles, available at these links: