In response to the need for higher payloads and towing capacity, the basic M998 HMMWV was re-engineered to strengthen its frame as well as upgrade the suspension and other parts. The result was the M1097 (with A1 and A2 variants) called the Truck, Utility, Heavy Variant HMMWV 4x4. It has a GVW of 10,000 lbs. with a GVW of 10,000 lbs. and payload of about 4,400 lbs. vs. 2,500 lbs. payload for the basic M998.
An M-1116 Up-Armored High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) operated by airmen from 87th Expeditionary Security Force Squadron, supporting Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa, Djibouti, provides security for the task force's air assets 14 June 2003.
Heavy Variant and Expanded Capacity Vehicle HMMWVs (UAH)
Following the M1097 Truck, Utility, Heavy Variant HMMWV 4x4, further developments by TACOM and contractors produced the M1113 Expanded Capacity Vehicle (ECV), a HMMWV shelter carrier with strengthened suspension, drive train, and braking systems. These changes increased available vehicle payload to 5,150 lbs.
Although developed as shelter carriers and weapons platforms, these HMMWV improvements provided the vehicle that was capable of bearing the load of increased armor when that requirement became the priority.
Find additional photos and hi-res versions of the Up-Armored HMMWV at the Olive-Drab Military Mashup.
Up-Armored HMMWV Development
On 8 August 1993, in the Medina District of Mogadishu, Somalia, a HMMWV of the 977th MP Company hit a water-filled pothole that concealed a land mine. The explosion rolled the vehicle over, killing the four soldiers in the HMMWV. A week later, the Army requested emergency authorization for development and procurement of an armor kit for the HMMWV for immediate use in theater.
Starting after that incident, the up-armored HMMWV was developed by a team from the U.S. Army Transportation Center, Fort Eustis, VA. They concluded the vehicle design would require 360 degree ballistic protection for the crew compartment, twelve pound anti-tank mine protection in front, four pound mine blast protection in the rear, and 155mm artillery overhead burst protection. The challenge for the design team was to meet all of these requirements while not exceeding a limit of 10,000 pound Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW).
In January 1994, the first fifty MX1109 "Up-Armored" (UA) HMMWVs were delivered to Somalia. The new UA vehicle could mount an M60 7.62mm machine gun, M2 .50 cal. machine gun, M249 SAW (Squad Automatic Rifle) or a Mk19 40mm grenade launcher. It had internal lock mechanisms for the rear hatch and doors to prevent theft.
The M1114 and M1116 Up-Armored HMMWV
M-1114 Up-Armored HMMWV received by Marines with 2nd Battalion, 4th Marine Regiment. M-1114 and M-1116 HMMWVs were transferred from the U.S. Army and Air Force during June of 2004 to the 2/4 in Iraq.
The vehicles quickly proved their worth saving lives in ambushes and mine strikes. The shortfalls of the XM1109 were corrected in the M1114, which began production in 1995. The M1113 heavy HMMWV chassis was selected by the Army as its A2 chassis for HMMWV purchases, originally used for special operations vehicles and communications shelter carriers. The M1113 had the capacity to bear the weight of the additional ballistic protection design, allowing an increase in GVW. The M1114 used the improved M1113 chassis, also adding air conditioning, a turbo-charged engine and a larger radiator. This gave the vehicle the versatility of the standard HMMWV coupled with the survivability of the new protective armor kit.
The new design along with the older XM1109 served in Somalia, Haiti and the Balkans, Bosnia and Kosovo. The next trial for the M1114 came in Afghanistan where 56 of the first M1114s were tested in harsh combat and brutal terrain.
The U.S. Air Force ordered a number of vehicles under the designation M1116, specifically designed to meet the requirements of the Air Force. The M1116 features an expanded cargo area, armored housing for the turret gunner and increased interior heating and air conditioning system. The M1116 has also been transferred to the USMC and Army for use in Afghanistan and Iraq.
Armor Protection of the M-1114 and M-1116
M1114 Up-Armored HMMWV, FOB in Mosul, Iraq, 2007. Sgt. Joe Martin on top, SGT Zane Goucher at the door. Photo courtesy Sgt. Martin.
The Up-Armored HMMWVs are fully armored. The doors, the under panels and the side panels are all protected by thick steel plate. The windows and windshield are made of glass that's almost four inches thick to withstand IED blasts and direct hits by small arms fire. The doors have heavy shackles attached to assist recovery or door removal in the event of a rollover. [Thanks to Sgt. Joe Martin for help with this section.]
The hefty vehicles have a curb weight of 9800 lbs. (4447 kg.), a rated payload of 2300 lbs. (1043 kg.) for a Gross Vehicle Weight of 12,100 lbs. (5489 kg.) Advanced electronics include state-of-the-art global positioning systems and the Blue Force Tracker.
Continued on Up-Armored HMMWV Page 2.
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