The HMMWV was originally a soft-skin vehicle, primarily intended as a personnel carrier and cargo truck, shelter carrier, and crew-served weapons platform. Although some models had a hard top and hard doors, they offered almost no protection from ballistic threats (bullets). If equipped with a roof weapon, the gunner was particularly vulnerable to small arms fire or the effects of blast near or under the vehicle.
U.S. Army Pfc. Raymond Purte in the turret of an M1114 Up-Armored HMMWV, during a patrol halt in Bagram, Afghanistan, 27 October 2006. He is holding his M16 rifle by the buttstock with the barrel pointed down. A MK19 40mm Grenade Machine Gun is mounted in the turret, protected by the Weapons Shield.
Under the pressure of combat experience, especially in Operation Iraqi Freedom, the HMMWV family has expanded to include up-armored and heavy variants. Far more attention has been paid to the protection of the gunner position. This section of Olive-Drab.com describes the evolution of HMMWV crew-served weapon mountings, shields and turrets. The full list of HMMWV variants, more information about the Up-Armored HMMWV (UAH), and HMMWV safety improvements including gunner protection are on the linked pages.
The HMMWV Armament Carrier and TOW missile configurations have a hard top roof hatch with a 360° rotating weapons ring. A gunner stands on a floor-mounted platform or rests on a web sling. A short pedestal mount can be attached to the ring to support the pintle or pintle adaptor for all standard U.S. military machine guns.
In addition to weapons mounted at the roof gunner position, HMMWVs have been outfitted with pedestals in the open truck bed, with windows designed to be used as firing ports, and with armor boxes to create a convoy escort gun truck.
These adapter mounts enable the U.S. military crew served weapons to be mounted on the HMMWV pedestal mounts or ring mounts. Other accessory components include ammunition containers and brackets, catch bag assembly, components to provide control over the machine guns while mounted, and components to provide machine gun and user protection.
Mount, MK64 Mod 7 or Mod 9 (NSN 1010-01-412-3159) accommodates the MK19 Mod 3 grenade machine gun, the M2 machine gun, and the M60 machine gun.
Mount, MK93 Mod 1 (NSN 1005-01-383-2757) or Mod 2 (NSN 1010-01-502-7547) is a dual purpose soft mount for the MK19 Mod 3 40mm Grenade Machine Gun and M2 .50 cal. Heavy Machine Gun. The MK93 mount uses the HMMWV pintle adapter (NSN 3120-01-188-5082) to mate with the HMMWV ring mount.
Mount, M197 (NSN 1005-01-413-4098) mates the M249 SAW or M240B MG to the HMMWV ring mount or pedestal mount.
Mount, M142 (NSN 1005-01-451-7558) is used with the M60 machine gun to cradle the M60 for use with the M4 pedestal mount.
Other weapons have been mounted on the HMMWV by U.S. allied countries and for special forces operations. Normally this is accomplished by adapting the pintle mount of the weapon to one of the mounts provided for U.S. weapons on the HMMWV.
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